Va-xco đơ ga-ma

     
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Passing the Canary Islands on July 15, the fleet reached São Tiago (Santiago) in the Cape Verde Islands on the 26th, remaining there until August 3. Then, to avoid the currents of the Gulf of Guinea, domain authority Gama undertook a long detour through the South Atlantic before attempting lớn round the Cape of Good Hope. The fleet reached Santa Helena Bay (in modern South Africa) on November 7. Unfavourable winds và the adverse current delayed the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope until November 22. Three days later da Gama anchored in Mossel Bay, erected a padrão on an island, and ordered the storeship to be broken up. Sailing again on December 8, the fleet reached the coast of Natal on Christmas Day. On January 11, 1498, it anchored for five sầu days near the mouth of a small river between Natal & Mozambique, which they called the Rio vì Cobre (Copper River). On January 25, in what is now Mozambique, they reached the Quelimane River, which they called the Rio dos Bons Sinais (the River of Good Omens), & erected another padrão. By this time many of the crews were siông chồng with scurvy; the expedition rested a month while the ships were repaired.

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On March 2 the fleet reached the Isl& of Mozambique, the inhabitants of which believed the Portuguese to lớn be Muslims lượt thích themselves. Da Gama learned that they traded with Arab merchants và that four Arab vessels laden with gold, jewels, silver, and spices were then in port; he was also told that Prester John, the long-sought Christian ruler, lived in the interior but held many coastal cities. The Sulrã of Mozambique supplied da Gama with two pilots, one of whom deserted when he discovered that the Portuguese were Christians.

The expedition reached Mombasa (now in Kenya) on April 7 và dropped anchor at Malindi (also now in Kenya) on April 14, where a Gujarati pilot who knew the route to lớn Calicut, on the southwest coast of India, was taken aboard. After a 23-day run across the Indian Ocean, the Ghats Mountains of India were sighted, & Calicut was reached on May đôi mươi. There da Gama erected a padrão to lớn prove he had reached India. The welcome of the Zamorin, the Hindu ruler, of Calicut (then the most important trading centre of southern India), was dispelled by da Gama’s insignificant gifts và rude behaviour. Da Gama failed lớn conclude a treaty—partly because of the hostility of Muslim merchants và partly because the trumpery presents and cheap trade goods that he had brought, while suited lớn the West African trade, were hardly in dem& in India. The Portuguese had mistakenly believed the Hindus to lớn be Christians.


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Vasco da Gama
Vasco domain authority Gama delivering the letter of King Manuel I of Portugal to the Zamorin of Calicut, India.
John D. Morris & Company/Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (tệp tin no. LC-USZ62-105882)

After tension increased, domain authority Gama left at the end of August, taking with hlặng five or six Hindus so that King Manuel might learn about their customs. Ignorance và indifference lớn local knowledge had led domain authority Gama khổng lồ choose the worst possible time of year for his departure, and he had to lớn sail against the monsoon. He visited Anjidiv Island (near Goa) before sailing for Malindi, which he reached on January 8, 1499, after nearly three months crossing the Arabian Sea. Many of the crew died of scurvy. At Malindi, because of greatly reduced numbers, da Gama ordered the “São Rafael” to be burned; there he also erected a padrão. Mozambique, where he phối up his last padrão, was reached on February 1. On March đôi mươi the “São Gabriel” and “Berrio” rounded the Cape together but a month later were parted by a storm; the “Berrio” reached the Tagus River in Portugal on July 10. Da Gama, in the “São Gabriel,” continued to lớn Terceira Island in the Azores, whence he is said khổng lồ have dispatched his flagship to lớn Lisbon. He himself reached Lisbon on September 9 and made his triumphal entry nine days later, spending the interval mourning his brother Paulo, who had died on Terceira. (Out of domain authority Gama’s original crew of 170, only 55 men had survived.) Manuel I granted domain authority Gama the title of dom, an annual pension of 1,000 cruzados, and estates.